AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED

2013
Colour, Stereo, 65mins
Reflecting on the historic ESP (extrasensory perception) and telepathy research of parapsychologist Dr J.B. Rhine (1895-1980) AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED considers the ways in which we think about our place within the world, our desire to read meaning in coincidence, and the belief that there is more to the universe than simply ‘matter in motion’.
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED features the voices of historic and now dead figures from the fields of psychology and parapsychology, discussing the importance of exactness, precision and scientific rigour, and the role of parapsychology, and ESP (extrasensory perception) and telepathy research in relation to developments in statistics and mathematics. Dr Seymour Mauskopf (Professor Emeritus of History, Duke University) refers to ESP experiments conducted by Apollo 14 Astraunaut Edgar Mitchell, and speculates on the transformative experience of looking back at Earth while standing on the Moon.

While reflecting on the ESP laboratory work of Dr J.B. Rhine, AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED explores our attempts to understand the world and our place within it, our desire to read something deeper into coincidence, and the belief that perhaps there is more to the world than simply matter in motion.

Featuring images and recordings from:
The Records of the Parapsychology Laboratory, 1893–1984, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University. Seymour Mauskopf Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University.
Rhine Research Center, Durham, NC.
Alex Tanous Library, Rhine Research Center, Durham, NC, USA.


AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED is developed from the artist's 2011 residency working with the Rhine Research Center and Parapsychology Laboratory Records, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. The residency was supported through the Arts Council of Northern Ireland Self Initiated Residency Award.
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED (2013-14) is a body of sculpture and video work that considers the historic and groundbreaking experimental ESP (extrasensory perception) work of parapsychologist Dr J.B. Rhine (1895-1980). Regarded as the Father of Modern Parapsychology Rhine was a leading researcher and published author. Rhine was interested in testing ESP, telepathy, psychokinesis and precognition through laboratory methods acceptable to science. Rhine began his renowned experimental research in the 1930s and developed tests employing the identification of unseen cards and the prediction of dice rolls.

AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED pursues the artist's fascination in the researcher's quest for answers and proof and reflects on the lives and personaliities, and the work and experimental apparatus of those involved in parapsychology. A 1934 telegram found in the archives of the Parapsychology Laboratory, housed at Duke University, Durham, NC, and carrying a sticker demanding 'AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED BY THE SENDER OF THIS MESSAGE' provides the title for the body of work.

AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, Installation shot, Psychic Lighthouse, Model Arts, Sligo, 2015
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, Installation shot
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, video still
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, featuring Dr Seymour Mauskopf
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, Installation shot
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, featuring Dr Seymour Mauskopf
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, Installation shot
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED, 2013, featuring Dr Seymour Mauskopf
AN ANSWER IS EXPECTED
BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF VOICES

Historic audio recordings from the 1970s and early 80s, conducted by Dr Seymour Mauskopf and Dr Michael McVaugh for The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980. Recordings accessed from the Seymour Mauskopf Papers, David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Duke University, with kind permission from Dr Seymour Mauskopf.

Lewis E. Anderson (1912-2007)
Professor of Botany, Duke University.

Katharine M. Banham (1897-1995)
First woman to be awarded a PhD at the University of Montreal (1934). Professor of Psychology, Duke University.

John M. ‘Jack’ Bevan (1924-2000)
Professor of Psychology, Duke University.

William Bevan (1922-2007)
Cognitive psychologist. Provost, Duke University. Executive officer, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Kathleen M. Goldney (1894-1992)
Worked with mathematician S.G. Soal on ESP experiments with Basil Shackleton.

Joseph A. Greenwood (1906-1988)
Professor of Mathematics, Duke University. Specialised in the mathematical evaluation of data in the field of parapsychology.

Paul M. Gross (1895-1986)
Professor of Department of Chemistry, Duke University.

Rosalind Heywood (1895-1980)
Vice President, Society for Psychical Research. Author of ‘The Sixth Sense – An Enquiry into Extrasensory Perception’ (1959).

Gertrude M. Johnson (dates unknown)
Subject of Mr G.N.M. Tyrrell (1879-1952) in precognitive clairvoyance experiments.

Guy W. Lambert (1889-1983/84)
President, Society for Psychical Research. Specialised in research on spontaneous cases of extrasensory perception.

Seymour Mauskopf (b.1938)
Professor Emeritus of History, Duke University, Durham, NC. Author of ‘The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research’ (1980, with Michael McVaugh).

Michael McVaugh (b.1938)
Professor Emeritus of History, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. Author of ‘The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research’ (1980, with Seymour Mauskopf).

James G. Miller (1916-2002)
Biologist and Dr of Psychology. Originated the modern use of the term ‘behavioural science’. Editor of the journal ‘Behavioural Science’.

Gardner Murphy (1895-1979)
President, American Psychological Association, and Society for Psychical Research, and American Society for Psychical Research. Director, Parapsychology Foundation.

Lois B. Murphy (1902-2003)
Specilaised in child psychology; developmental psychology; experimental social psychology.

Edwin B. Newman (1943-1990)
Chair of the Department of Psychology, Harvard University. Board of Directors, American Psychological Association.

Sara Ownbey Zirkle (dates unknown)
Participant in ESP experiments and supervisor of experiments in Rhine’s ESP research group at Duke University, including distance telepathy work.

J.Gaither Pratt (1910-1979)
Research associate of J.B. Rhine and Assistant Director, Parapsychology Laboratory, Duke University. President Parapsychological Association.

J.B. Rhine (1895-1980)
Professor of Psychology, Duke University. Co-founder of the Parapsychology Laboratory, Duke University. Founded scientific research in parapsychology as a branch of psychology.

Louisa E. Rhine (1891-1983)
Parapsychologist and Doctor of Botany. Staff member, Parapsychology Laboratory, Duke University. Married to J.B. Rhine.

Sally Rhine Feather (b.1930)
Experimental and clinical psychologist. Daughter of Dr. J.B. Rhine and Louisa E. Rhine. Director Emeritus of the Rhine Research Center, Durham, NC.

Gertrude R. Schmeidler (1912-2009)
Professor of Psychology, City University of New York. President of the Parapsychological Association.

B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Behaviourist psychologist, author, and social philosopher. Inventor of the ‘Skinner Box’ operant conditioning chamber. Professor of Psychology at Harvard University.

Dael Wolfle (1906-2002)
Conducted work in the application of statistical methods to psychology. Executive Director of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.